Terriana Graham

Screen_shot_2012-05-30_at_9.47.47_AM.pngBackground Information

Noriega became the head of the National Guard of Panama in 1983. He was able to build a strong military and choose who he wanted to be leader of Panama. In addition, he was known to put people in prison or kill them if they criticized him. In 1989 a former officer of the Panamanian accused Noriega of doing drug business with Columbians. When the United States responded to this problem it made Noriega unhappy. On December 15,1989 Noriega declared war on the United States. The United States formed “Operation Just Cause”. On December 20, 1989 the United States invaded Panama. On January 30, Noriega surrendered and was later tried in Miami, Florida and is serving a 40 year sentence.


Who was Manuel A. Noriega?

Manuel A. Noriega was born on February 11, 1934 in Panama City, Panama. At the age of 5 he was given up for adoption to a schoolteacher. When he was growing up he wanted to be a Doctor but was not fortunate enough to pay for college. Instead he attend a military academy for college. Noriega became the head of The National Guard of Panama in 1983. In 1989 he seized control of Panama and also declared war on the United States.

Screen_shot_2012-05-30_at_9.36.47_AM.pngWhat was "Operation Just Cause"?

Operation Just Cause is the code name for the invasion of Panama. After Noriega declared war on the United States George W. Bush Sr. created this operation. The U.S. plan was to invade Panama and get Noriega out of power for drug trafficking charges. On December 20, 1989 over 25,000 American soldiers invaded Panama. Ah-64 helicopter landed at military bases and working class community. This was the largest operation the United States had done since Vietnam and the most violent event in Panama's history.

Why did the United States Invade?


The United States had many reasons to invade Panama. The main reason was to bring Noriega to trial in the United States for drug trafficking charges. The Unites States thought it was a threat to their country. They also wanted to take him out of power because he was not a good leader for his country. Another reason was to protect 35,000 Americans in Panama. Noriega had shot and killed a U.S. marine in December 1989 after he had declared a state of war with the United States. The U.S. also wanted to bring a democracy back to Panama. In ten years the United States turned over the Panama Canal to the Panamanians. The U.S. also wanted to keep control of the Panama Canal.

What was the impact on American Society?

The Unites States had broken international laws and its own government police by invading Panama. They thought if they take Noriega out of power they would slow down the drug flow from South American to the United States. There are still drugs coming to the United States from South American and Mexico. The Americans also displayed the invasion on television. Showing the people at home that they were getting the job done. Also some of these news producer were captured and held as hostages. They were threatened with ak-47 by Panamanians who were loyal to Noriega.


Works Cited
“Invasion of Panama: Events & People.” St. Rosemary Educational Institution. N.p., 19 July 2011. Web. 31 May 2012. <http://schoolworkhelper.net/2011/07/invasion-of-panama-events-people/>.

“Manuel A. Noriega.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit, 1998. Gale U.S. History in Context. Web. 28 May 2012. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=UHIC%3AWHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CK1631004881&mode=view&&userGroupName=lnoca_orange&jsid=02d2ee5f4bc4559cd17221d295f2cdab>.

Military.com Resources. Monster, 2012. Web. 24 May 2012. <http://www.military.com/Resources/HistorySubmittedFileView?file=history_panama.htm>.

“The Panama Invasion Revisited: Lessons for the Use of Force in the Post Cold War Era.” Political Science Quarterly. Eytan Gilboa, 1995. Web. 30 May 2012. <https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/gilboa.htm>.

“Panama, U.S. Invasion of.” International Military and Defense Encyclopedia. Detroit: Trevor N. Dupuy, 1993. Gale World History in Context. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&prodId=WHIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2342200544&mode=view&userGroupName=lnoca_orange&jsid=be219aa159b9cc0ef0de10987c2eb041>.

“The U.S. Invasion of Panama 1989: The Injustice of ‘Operation Just Cause’ .” revcom.us. N.p., 9 Oct. 2005. Web. 29 May 2012. <http://revcom.us/a/017/us-invasion-panama.htm>.